By- Tasneem F. Khan, 2 Dec : A momentum that rebuilds our cities and reforms the way the Urban Local Bodies are governed, a commitment to the development and expansion of physical infrastructure, Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), a first of its kind programme was launched on December 3, 2005.
The objectives of the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission is to ensure:
? Focused attention to integrated development of infrastructural services in the cities covered under the Mission;
? Secure effective linkages between asset creation and asset management so that the infrastructural services created in the cities are not only maintained efficiency but also become self-sustaining over time;
? Ensure adequate investment of funds to fulfill deficiencies in the urban infrastructural services;
? Planned development of identified cities including peri-urban areas, out growths, urban corridors, so that urbanization takes place in a dispersed manner;
? Scale up delivery of civic amenities and provision of utilities with emphasis on universal access to urban poor and
? To take up urban renewal programme, i.e. re-development of inner (old) cities area to reduce congestion.
The Mission comprises two submissions, Sub-Mission I for Urban Infrastructure and Governance (UIG) and Submission II for Basic Services for the Urban Poor (BSUP). Ministry of Urban Development has the responsibility for UIG, while the Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation has the responsibility for BSUP.
Progress of Projects
As of now, 343 projects at a total cost of Rs. 32,795.12 crore have been sanctioned under the Urban Infrastructure & Governance sub-mission of JNNURM. The Additional Central Assistance committed by the Government towards meeting the central share of the total projects cost for these 343 projects is Rs. 15,892.85 crore, out of which an amount of Rs. 4,478.85 crore has been released to the Mission Cities.
The sector-wise break up of the 343 sanctioned projects shows that, in the areas of basic services, 103 water supply projects have been approved at a total sanctioned cost of Rs. 11,938.95 crore; 66 sewerage projects have been approved at a total sanctioned cost of Rs. 8,001.88 crore; 37 drainage (including storm water drainage) projects have been approved at a total sanctioned cost of Rs. 3,262.02 crore; and, 30 solid waste management projects have been approved at a total sanctioned cost of Rs. 1,581.57 crore. In the area of urban transport, 16 MRTS projects have been approved at a total sanctioned cost of Rs. 4,084.59 crore and 68 road projects have been approved at a total sanctioned cost of Rs. 2,838.74 crore. Other sectors for which projects have been approved include urban renewal, development of heritage areas, preservation of water bodies and other urban transport.
Out of the 343 sanctioned projects, 22 projects have been physically completed. These include six projects in Hyderabad, five projects in Surat, four projects in Ahmedabad, two projects in Visakhapatnam, and one project each in the cities of Bangalore, Bhopal, Indore, Nagpur and Nanded. The total sanctioned cost of these completed projects is Rs. 1,077.73 crore.
Progress of Reforms
As far as the progress of implementation of state level reforms till the end of year three of the Mission is concerned, 10 out of 11 states have transferred 12th Schedule Functions to the ULBs; 17 out of 22 states have constituted DPCs; 3 out of 8 states have constituted MPCs; 10 out of 14 states have transferred the City Planning Functions to the ULBs; all 12 states which were to have Transferred/Integrated Water Supply and Sanitation Functions have implemented the reform; 7 out of 12 states have undertaken Reform in Rent Control; all 8 states which were to have rationalized Stamp Duty to 5 per cent have achieved the reform; all 28 states which were to have repealed ULCRA have achieved the reform; 5 out of 18 states have enacted the Community Participation Law and 10 out of 16 states enacted the Public Disclosure Law.
Regarding implementation of ULB reforms —11 out of 31 cities have implemented e-Governance Reforms; 23 out of 33 cities have shifted to Double Entry Accrual Based Accounting; 11 out of 12 cities have achieved an 85 per cent Coverage of Property Tax; 9 out of 10 cities have achieved 90 per cent Collection Efficiency in Property Tax; all 6 cities have achieved 100 per cent Cost Recovery in water supply; 3 out of 4 cities have achieved 100 per cent Cost Recovery in Solid waste and 44 out of 47 cities have implemented Internal Earmarking of Funds for Services to Urban Poor.
JNNURM has accelerated growth in the selected 63 Mission cities spread all over the country in mission-mode approach and aims to provide quality urban infrastructure and governance in these cities during the 7 year Mission period. Another components of JNNURM is the Urban Infrastructure Development Scheme for Small & Medium Towns (UIDSSMT), which is as its name suggests is for towns and cities other than 63 Mission cities. Against the allocation of Rs. 6,400 crores during the Mission period; 691 projects in 558 towns in 23 states and two Union Territories have been sanctioned having a project cost of Rs. 8045.45 crores. A number of parallel initiatives i.e. Credit Rating of Urban local Bodies, Bench marking of Urban services, launch of Urban Sanitation Policy, National Mission Mode project on e-governance, Peer experience and Reflective Learning (PEARL), and Public Private Partnership (PPP) have been launched to sustain Mission activities.
The Ministry of Urban Development had decided that from the year 2008, a mega Conference-cum-Exhibition on Urban Mobility be organized every year coinciding with the anniversary of the launch of Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). This year the aim of this Conference-cum-Exhibition is to bring all technology and service providers from India and abroad in all the fields of Urban Transport Planning from Pedestrians, Non-Motorised Transport, Metro, Bus, BRTS (Bus Rapid Transit System), LRT (Light Rail Transit), Trams, Inland Water Transport, Ropeways, Parking and the ITS (Intelligent Transportation System) on one platform to exchange and benefit with the experience, development of each other for better transportation planning. This will go a long way not only in dissemination of information but also in capacity building at various levels.