Dr Anjali Rajan* : Antibiotics are used to treat infections caused by bacteria which are microscopic organism and some of which may cause illness. Nature has gifted our body system a unique mechanism of destroying bacteria before they can multiply and cause negative symptoms and adversely affect our body. We have special white blood cells (WBC) that attack harmful bacteria and repair the immune system. But there are occasions when the immune system of human body fails to fight the deadly bacteria and due to that one feels sick. In order to curb the multiplication of these bad and adversely affecting bacteria, Antibiotics are required and duly prescribed by physicians. The external doses and its potency are determined according to the need and symptoms of Bacterial disease.
With the passage of time and change in environment and fooding habits of human beings it came to the light that in most of the new medical cases the Antibiotics do not respond properly or in some case even has no response at all. What are the reasons behind this new phenomenon? Are the present eras Bacteria getting themselves immune from the available Antibiotics? The answer is in affirmative. The discovery of Penicillin as worlds first Antibiotic lost its shine in the early 70’s due to its large scale utilization in all treatments and gradually bacteria becoming resistant of this Antibiotic. Later on the development of advanced and high potency Antibiotics has curbed the problem but with the passage of time again new bacteria are becoming resistant and changing & challenging the health scenario. This trend has kept the medical experts in fix.
According to survey report 2012 of the World Health Organization (WHO) there is a serious and growing threat world wide of Antibiotic Resistance. The bacteria are becoming so much resistant to common Antibiotics that the end of modern medicine is not far off. According to survey report not only Asian but American and European nations are facing this threat at large scale. According to survey report it has become chief threats to human health and per year death toll is about 80000 people in China and much more in other Asian countries. More than 30% infants die in India each year from the bacterial germs which do not respond to Antibiotics. There is 90% rise in the cases of blood and wound infections besides rise in pneumonia and Tuberculosis where the best Antibiotics are not even responding. This clearly indicates that India is becoming home of dangerous germs. The overuse, misuse and abuse of Antibiotics are the basic reason for failing of the modern era miracle drug. As per survey 47% patient insist on the use of Antibiotic for even very small symptoms of disease and more than 55% people use Antibiotics without taking consultation from medical expert and more than 50% Chemist sell Antibiotics without prescription. 25% of these self medicating patients do not even complete the full course of it. This ignorance help the bacteria to change their genetic makeup and in becoming more aggressive. The survey reports that about one million infants die in the first 30 days of their life every year due to bacterial infection and an alarming picture is seen across the country. There are cases of inexplicable antibiotic resistance in patients even those who have no history of disease. Despite this alarming situation there is no major discovery of powerful Antibiotic in last 20 years.
People are very casual about the use of Antibiotics as they are cheap and freely available. The consumption of it has gone up by about 10% in previous 10 years. With this alarming rise in health hazard and casualties India, in the coming time, needs a thorough medical policy to gain over lethal bacteria. It is suggested that fever for more than 3 days, swollen lump nodes, sever headache, anywhere rashes on skin, spiking or severe shaking or falling blood pressure and open or exposure of wounds to public & unhygienic places be strictly avoided. Prevention, clean & green environment around you appears to be a better policy in the changing scenario beside no to self medication without prescription can be indeed helpful and it can be proved that India is determined to face the challenges of changing face of bacteria.
* Faculty, Department of Applied Chemistry, M. J. P Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (UP)